Tag Archives: energy efficiency

The Internet of Things and energy conservation

Humans are creative, and adaptive. We’ve done it all our lives, and all our existence. We needed more food, and so we created agriculture. We needed to live together, and so we created architecture. We needed to communicate, and so we created hundreds of ways to do just that; Internet, mobile telephone networks, computers. We are so fond of computers that we have them everywhere, often without noticing them. Yes, you might have a bulky desktop computer at home, or maybe even a flashy new laptop, but those are not the only computers. Your mobile telephone is a computer, but technically, so is your microwave, your car, your television set, and even your washing machine.

Our lives have changed greatly. We’ve all seen pictures and even films of medieval castles, and we know how we used to live. Today, our lives are made more comfortable by scores of machines; when was the last time you washed your clothes by hand? The clothes go in the washing machine, then in the dryer, and then in the cupboard. This all comes at a cost; financially, of course, but also in terms of energy.

Energy. The art of creating electrical power and delivering it to our homes and cities. For most people, this is as simple as having overhead power lines here and there, and paying a bill at the end of the month. Unfortunately, it is much more complicated than that. Power stations require scores of people to operate, and something surprising, data. In France, we have “too many” power stations, and most run at low capacity. When it gets hot, those who have air conditioning like to put it on, consuming electricity. Multiply that by a few thousand, and you get an idea of how much energy the power station needs to produce. When it gets cold, people like to heat their homes and businesses, and since everyone has radiators, electrical consumption soars. Imagine the amount of radiators an entire city can contain, and imagine even 50% of them turned on at the same time. Imagine.

Data is needed from other sources, not just from the weather. Imagine the amount of power required to let all the football fans watch the world cup. Our problem is that we can generate electricity, but we cannot store it (at least, not on this kind of scale). When everything gets turned on, the power station must be able to respond. If it can’t, bad things happen; the lights dim, or sometimes everything goes dark. We now know we cannot live without electricity.

SMART Energy Flow

We all know that we need to reduce our energy dependence, even if some of us don’t want to. To make more people aware, some cities turn off all the lights for an hour. It’s called Earth Hour. For one hour, people are encouraged to use as little electricity as possible; turning off the lights, for example. This does have an impact, but it is a double-edged sword. For one hour, the electricity usage drops considerably, while everyone thinks about the planet, and what we will leave behind for our children. At the end of the hour, everything goes back on, and this is where things get tricky. When electrical devices are first turned on, some can generate what is called an energy spike; a large consumption at first, before something more stable. It is visible just after Earth Hour, but it actually happens every day.

Building Appliances and Home Systems using Energy at Optimum Times

Peak hours. In my house, my electric water heater is connected to a peak-hour detection system. At 11:30 PM, my electricity provider starts “off-peak” hours, a time where electricity costs less. It costs less, an incentive to make me use power-hungry devices at a time when other devices are not needed. At this time of night, most businesses are closed, and so there is less demand. It is all about normalizing energy requirements, and to stop peaks during the day. At 7:30 AM, peak hours start, the water heater turns off, businesses start up, and my kettle turns on, the day is about to begin.


Energy is available, that isn’t the problem. Our problem is our use of energy. If only we had a way of using energy when it was available. Imagine, a certain amount of energy available. When I need light, I want my light to be usable immediately. I need a start time; now. However, when I put my clothes in the washing machine generally, I need them to be ready for the next day. I need and “end” time; I need the device to get the work done before a certain time. When will the washing machine start? Well, I don’t actually mind when it starts, and this is where I need help. This is where the IoT can help us, because we really need help.

The IoT will give us millions of connected sensors. This will also supply us with data, lots and lots of it. Why wouldn’t a small device in my house have direct control over my washing machine, or even better, actually be inside my washing machine? It could be programmed to start at a specific time, talking to other devices on the energy grid? Or even in my home; it could tell the water heater to wait until it has finished, and then the water heater gets its chance. The possibilities are endless.

Washing Machine is Connected - SMART HOME

IoT will give us an incredible amount of data, and data that can be used to help up control, and maybe even overcome our need to energy. But wait a minute, doesn’t the IoT itself need energy? It does, but the amount of energy that it will save outweighs the amount of energy it uses, and by a large factor. Take, for example, Atmel’s SAM D21 microcontroller. It uses less than 70µA per MHz, and that is when it is running at full speed. Of course, these devices have advanced power management, and with careful coding, they can last for months on cell batteries. Low power does not mean no power; it has enough flex to get the job done, and more. With built-in USB, ADCs, DACs and enough RAM and ROM for the most complex programs, it gets the job done. It also has the Atmel Event system, a powerful system that lets the microcontroller react to external events without the need to constantly look at inputs.

(Source CES 2014 - Samsung's Vision of the Now and Future of Connected Appliances)

We need a little help in our lives to make simple decisions; when should I turn the heating on? When is the best time to turn on the air conditioner? We think we know, but we don’t. IoT will allow us to know exactly when the cold weather is coming. IoT will know when to turn the lights off. In short, IoT will generate enough data that it will know better than us what to do, and when. What we have seen so far is only the beginning.

IoT will thrive on energy efficiency

We already know that the IoT will provide us with a hyper-connected and customizable world, but how easy will it be to control all of our connected devices in this smart landscape of the future? Will our home become a bloated hub of connected devices, or a streamlined system of dynamic mechanisms?

While early adopters of the IoT and connected devices may favor trendy and novelty items, home efficiency is where long term success will be found for the tech movement. While Google’s product, Nest, may be the most well-known IoT device on the market, it may not necessarily be the most efficient. While Nest can manage your home’s thermostat from your smartphone, there continue to be many other lesser-known developments that can further improve your home’s energy efficiency.


With energy efficiency being a buzzword in today’s home economy, very few individuals actually understand how their home receives and consumes energy. Lucas Davis, an associate professor at Haas School of Business at UC Berkeley, describes misconceptions about electricity consumption to Government Technology, “If it’s 3pm on a hot day, the cost of electricity can be four times what it is at 2am on a Tuesday.”

The current manner of monitoring home electricity consumption does not equate for these fluctuations, therefore, some forward thinking individuals are looking to the IoT to better manage widespread energy efficiency. Davis goes on to note that homeowners “should have a thermostat that just knows about those critical peak days and knows to turn off my air conditioner at those hours.”

A number of companies are currently racing to devise IoT-tbased solutions to better manage and promote energy efficiency within the home. Nate Williams of Greenwave believes there could be a “set it and forget it” mentality when designing a home for IoT management.


There is even a movement for more ‘green’ IoT home devices like the Niwa, which provides in-home gardening management. Environmentally conscious innovations like these could provide users of the IoT platform an unprecedented manner to run a ‘green’ home.

Ideally, the IoT will make all of our lives easier. Though, there will be a learning curve as to how to best streamline our daily activities in order to best capitalize on the connected platform. If individuals are willing to overcome novelty and seek out efficiency, the Internet of Things could provide a ‘greener’ and much more prosperous future.


LED power management with Atmel’s XMEGA E

An LED lighting power management system typically includes elements such as power conversion, constant current regulation and fault handling. Key design considerations? A high level of integration, small form factor, support for a wide range of standard lighting communication protocols, energy efficiency and the ability to operate in high temperatures.


And that is why Atmel’s AVR XMEGA E supports multiple LED driver topologies, all while leaving CPU resources for additional application functionalities.

“The XMEGA E offers high integration and a small form factor, along with dual high-speed 40ns analog comparators for current regulation,” an Atmel engineering rep told Bits & Pieces.

“Multiple high speed 128MHz timers allow generation of fast PWM, while dual digital to analog converters provide peak current management. There is also an Asynchronous Event System for ultra-fast response and control loops, with a Custom Logic (XCL) block to eliminate the need for external logic components.”

On the energy efficiency side, the XMEGA E – qualified for high temperature at 105C and 125C – is equipped with rich analog peripheral features to run complex power control algorithms. In addition, Atmel’s XMEGA E boasts ultra low power consumption: 100uA/MHz in active mode and 100nA in RTC/RAM retention.

As noted above, Atmel offers support for multiple lighting communication protocols, with hardware DALI support via an XCL block in XMEGA E, as well as software support for DMX, LWmesh, and interface to PLC, ZigBee Light Link, ZigBee Home Automation and other wireless protocols.

In addition, engineers who use the XMEGA E in their LED power management systems have access to a free IDE with compiler along with Atmel software libraries containing production ready source code.

Interested in learning more about Atmel’s lighting solutions? Be sure to check out our official lighting page here.